Philippe Pagnotta, Jacques Mourier, Les églises fortifiées de la Meuse : au cœur de la mémoire des terroirs, Conservation départementale des Musées de la Meuse, Conseil général de la Meuse, 1993, 18 €.

This work was published to coincide with the exhibition organised by the Meuse Museums Conservation department, and followed an exhibition of photography featuring unusual images of this heritage. It delivers a critical presentation of sources and draws up a full inventory.

In the Middle Ages and in the modern era, the church is not just a place for religion; it also fulfils multiple social roles where the sacred and the profane are inextricably intertwined. It is at the heart of community life and its concerns, and also acts as a place of refuge for rural populations perpetually exposed to insecurity, soldiers and the military, and thieves and outlaws terrorising and pillages the countryside. It was inside the church and in the cemetery that the country folk organised their resistance movement. Fortified churches are a little known piece of heritage, and all too often considered to be marginal and anecdotal.